Spotlight on Nephrology

Credits: 0.50 CME / CNE
ADPKD - What Your Patients Want You to Know
Brittany Cavanaugh, DO
Global Education Group

ADPKD - What Your Patients Want You to Know

Start

Activity Details

Free CME/CNE
0.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)
0.5 Contact Hour(s)
Released: December 31, 2018
Expires: December 31, 2019
30 minutes to complete

Jointly Provided By

In Partnership With

Statement of Commercial Support

This activity is supported by an independent educational grant from Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.

Terms of Offering

This activity was released on 12/31/18 and is valid for one year. Requests for credit must be made no later than 12/31/19.

Target Audience

The educational design of this activity addresses the needs of nephrology and primacy care HCPs involved in the treatment of patients with ADPKD.

Statement of Need/Program Overview

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a chronic inherited progressive condition in which renal cysts develop and expand, eventually leading to severe loss of kidney function. Complications include pain, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Unless patients undergo dialysis or transplantation, ADPKD is inevitably fatal. Because it is a genetically transmitted disease, there is a 50/50 chance that each child of a parent with ADPKD will develop the disease. Management of ADPKD has evolved significantly in recent years; in 2018, the first drug indicated for slowing progression of the disease was approved.

ADPKD is considered a rare disease, but with a prevalence of approximately 1:1000, the odds are high that most primary care practices have 1 or more patients with the condition – whether or not it has been diagnosed. Primary care providers would benefit from education that raises their awareness of ADPKD, explains strategies for managing the disease and its complications, and provides them with tools to promote and preserve optimal patient health for as long as possible.

This unique online Clinical Comparison CME/CE activity allows learners to learn about ADPKD, discover evidence-based treatment strategies, apply their learning in a series of interactive real-world challenges, receive feedback on their choices, and compare their choices with those of their peers. The content of the program was developed, in part, through interviews with ADPKD patients and their caregivers, who shared their insights and what they wish their clinicians knew about the disease, its management, and its impact on their lives.

Educational Objectives

After completing this activity, the participant should be better able to:

  • Identify clinical approaches for the early recognition, efficient evaluation, and timely diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)
  • Identify data-driven approaches to the comprehensive care of patients with ADPKD
  • Recognize which patients with ADPKD are most likely to benefit from currently available and emerging therapies for ADPKD

Faculty

Brittany P. Cavanaugh, DO
Professor of Internal Medicine
Yale University School of Medicine
New Haven, Connecticut


Neera Dahl, MD
Associate Professor of Nephrology
Yale University School of Medicine
New Haven, Connecticut


Physician Accreditation Statement

This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of Global Education Group (Global) and Global Academy for Medical Education. Global is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Physician Credit Designation

Global Education Group designates this enduring material for a maximum of 0.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Nursing Continuing Education

Global Education Group is accredited with distinction as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation.

This educational activity for 0.5 contact hours is provided by Global Education Group. Nurses should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Global Contact Information

For information about the accreditation of this program, please contact Global at 303-395-1782 or cme@globaleducationgroup.com.

Instructions to Receive Credit

In order to receive credit for this activity, the participant must read the activity information, review the activity in its entirety, and complete the online post-test and evaluation. Upon completing this activity as designed and achieving a passing score on the post-test, you will be directed to a web page that will allow you to receive your certificate of credit via e-mail or you may print it out at that time.

System Requirements

PC
Microsoft Windows 2000 SE or above.
Flash Player Plugin (v7.0.1.9 or greater)
Internet Explorer (v5.5 or greater), or Firefox
Adobe Acrobat Reader

MAC
MAC OS 10.2.8
Flash Player Plugin (v7.0.1.9 or greater)
Safari
Adobe Acrobat Reader
Internet Explorer is not supported on the Macintosh.

Fee Information & Refund/Cancellation Policy

There is no fee for this educational activity.

Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest

Global Education Group (Global) requires instructors, planners, managers, and other individuals and their spouse/life partner who are in a position to control the content of this activity to disclose any real or apparent conflict of interest they may have as related to the content of this activity. All identified conflicts of interest are thoroughly vetted by Global for fair balance, scientific objectivity of studies mentioned in the materials or used as the basis for content, and appropriateness of patient care recommendations.

The faculty reported the following financial relationships or relationships to products or devices they or their spouse/life partner have with commercial interests related to the content of this CME activity:

Brittany P. Cavanaugh, DO
Nothing to disclose

Neera Dahl, MD
Has been a Consultant/Independent Contractor and a member of the Speakers’ Bureau for Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.

The planners and managers reported the following financial relationships or relationships to products or devices they or their spouse/life partner have with commercial interests related to the content of this CME activity:

Ashley Marostica, RN, MSN: Nothing to disclose
Lindsay Borvansky: Nothing to disclose
Andrea Funk: Nothing to disclose
Liddy Knight: Nothing to disclose
Ashley Cann: Nothing to disclose
Tom Garry: Nothing to disclose
Shirley V. Jones, MBA: Nothing to disclose
Mike LoPresti: Nothing to disclose
Ron Schaumburg: Nothing to disclose

Disclosure of Unlabeled Use

This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the FDA. Global Education Group (Global) and Global Academy for Medical Education do not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications.

The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of any organization associated with this activity. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.

Disclaimer

Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of patient conditions and possible contraindications on dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer’s product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities.

Copyright © 2018 by Global Academy for Medical Education, LLC, Frontline Medical Communications Inc. and its Licensors. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form, by any means, without prior written permission of the Publisher. Global Academy for Medical Education, LLC, the accredited provider or the Publisher will not assume responsibility for damages, loss, or claims of any kind arising from or related to the information contained in this publication, including any claims related to the products, drugs, or services mentioned herein.

Nephrology Presentations

1.00 CME / CNE
Medical Education Resources (MER)
Recognizing Progression in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Focus on Primary Care

Recognizing Progression in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Focus on Primary Care

Start

Activity Details

Free CME/CNE
1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit
1.0 CNE Contact Hour
Released: May 10, 2019
Expires: May 10, 2020
1.0 hour to complete

Accredited By

This activity is jointly provided by Medical Education Resources and CMEology.

Media

Internet activity

Target Audience

This certified activity is intended for primary care physicians and other health care providers who have the opportunity to care for patients with ADPKD.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants should be able to:

  • Formulate an appropriate and timely diagnosis of ADPKD, including risk of progression
  • Employ strategies to enhance multidisciplinary care across the continuum of ADPKD

Activity Description

This activity will feature a patient at high risk for progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and chronicle her journey through diagnosis, assessment, treatment planning, and monitoring. It will address the role of the primary care provider and will place emphasis on the primary care provider’s approach to initial testing and assessment, as well as recognizing indications for referral to a nephrologist. 

Statement of Educational Need

ADPKD is the most common genetic renal disorder. ADPKD is associated with a diminished quality of life and high health care utilization and costs. The unmet needs associated with ADPKD are among the greatest of all renal diseases. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of ADPKD offer opportunities for timely intervention and better outcomes in patients. However, ADPKD is often identified late, and care may not be effectively coordinated with specialists. Even in those diagnosed with ADPKD in a timely manner, health care providers may not adequately identify patients at risk for rapid ADPKD progression, knowledge that is important to the individualization of management. Ongoing management for ADPKD requires multidisciplinary care and coordination to assess progression, optimize care for renal and nonrenal manifestations, and identify patients appropriate for disease-modifying therapy. This activity is intended to enhance knowledge in the diagnosis, assessment of progression risk, and referral considerations for primary care providers.

Goals (Purpose) of Program 

Health care providers who complete this activity should be able to recognize and assess the risk for disease progression in patients with ADPKD and provide and enhance ongoing management including monitoring and coordination of care.

Faculty

York Pei, MSc, MD, FRCPC
York Pei, MSc, MD, FRCPC
Professor of Medicine
University of Toronto
Staff Nephrologist
Toronto General Hospital
University Health Network
Toronto, Canada

Conflict of Interest Policy/Disclosure Statement

It is the policy of Medical Education Resources (MER) to ensure balance, independence, objectivity, and scientific rigor in all of its educational activities. In accordance with this policy, MER identifies conflicts of interest with its instructors, content managers, and other individuals who are in a position to control the content of an activity. Conflicts are resolved by MER to ensure that all scientific research referred to, reported, or used in a continuing education activity conforms to the generally accepted standards of experimental design, data collection, and analysis. MER is committed to providing its learners with high-quality activities that promote improvements or quality in health care and not the business interest of a commercial interest.

The faculty has disclosed the following:

York Pei, MSc, MD, FRCPC
Consulting Fees: Otsuka, Sanofi, and Vertex

The following CMEology planners and managers, Beth Goodwin, Rob Lowney, and Dana Ravyn, PhD, MPH, hereby state that they or their spouse/life partner do not have any financial relationships or relationships to products or devices with any commercial interest related to the content of this CME/CE activity of any amount during the past 12 months.

The following MER planner and manager, Julie Johnson, PharmD, hereby states that she or her spouse/life partner do not have any financial relationships or relationships to products or devices with any commercial interest related to the content of this CME/CE activity of any amount during the past 12 months.

Physician Continuing Medical Education

Accreditation Statement
This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of Medical Education Resources (MER) and CMEology. MER is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians and nurses.

Credit Designation
Medical Education Resources designates this online activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in this activity.  

Continuing Nursing Education

Medical Education Resources is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission on Accreditation.

This CE activity provides 1.0 contact hour of continuing nursing education.

Medical Education Resources is a provider of continuing nursing education by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider #CEP 12299, for 1.0 contact hour.

Instructions for Receiving Credit

A brief post-test and course evaluation will follow the completion of the course. Please complete these questionnaires to claim credit for this course.

Requirements for Successful Completion

Upon successfully completing the post-test with a score of 75% or better and the completion of the activity evaluation, the certificate will be made available immediately. 

Statement of Commercial Support

This activity is supported by an educational grant from Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.

Disclaimer

Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of their patient’s conditions and possible contraindications and/or dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer’s product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities.

Disclosure of Unlabeled Use

This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the FDA. The planners of this activity do not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications. 

The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of the planners. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.

Contact Information for Questions about the Activity

For questions about the certification of this activity, please contact CMEology at: info@cmeology.org.

1.00 CME / CNE
Medical Education Resources (MER)
Improving Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Management Across the Continuum of Care: Focus on Nephrology

Improving Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Management Across the Continuum of Care: Focus on Nephrology

Start

Activity Details

Free CME/CNE
1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit
1.0 CNE Contact Hour
Released: May 10, 2019
Expires: May 10, 2020
1.0 hour to complete

Accredited By

This activity is jointly provided by Medical Education Resources and CMEology.

Media

Internet activity

Target Audience 

This certified activity is intended for nephrologists and other health care providers who have the opportunity to care for patients with ADPKD.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants should be able to:

  • Assess the risk of rapid disease progression in patients with ADPKD
  • Apply strategies to individualize ADPKD management according to progression and treatment response

Activity Description

This activity will feature a patient at high risk for progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and chronicle her journey through diagnosis, assessment, treatment planning, and monitoring. It will address the role of the specialist and will include factors that influence progression of ADPKD, kidney size determined by MRI, estimating risk of progression, and disease-modifying therapy. Emphasis will be placed on the collaborative process, illustrating multidisciplinary approaches to the continuum of care.

Statement of Educational Need

ADPKD is the most common genetic renal disorder. ADPKD is associated with a diminished quality of life and high health care utilization and costs. The unmet needs associated with ADPKD are among the greatest of all renal diseases. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of ADPKD offer opportunities for timely intervention and better outcomes in patients. However, ADPKD is often identified late, and care may not be effectively coordinated with specialists. Even in those diagnosed with ADPKD in a timely manner, health care providers may not adequately identify patients at risk for rapid ADPKD progression, knowledge that is important to the individualization of management. Ongoing management for ADPKD requires multidisciplinary care and coordination to assess progression, optimize care for renal and nonrenal manifestations, and identify patients appropriate for disease-modifying therapy. This activity is intended to enhance knowledge in the assessment of progression risk and ongoing management of ADPKD for nephrology specialists.

Goals (Purpose) of Program 

Health care providers who complete this activity should be able to recognize and assess the risk for disease progression in patients with ADPKD and enhance co-management and collaboration with the multidisciplinary team.

Faculty

York Pei, MSc, MD, FRCPC
York Pei, MSc, MD, FRCPC
Professor of Medicine
University of Toronto
Staff Nephrologist
Toronto General Hospital
University Health Network
Toronto, Canada

Conflict of Interest Policy/Disclosure Statement

It is the policy of Medical Education Resources (MER) to ensure balance, independence, objectivity, and scientific rigor in all of its educational activities. In accordance with this policy, MER identifies conflicts of interest with its instructors, content managers, and other individuals who are in a position to control the content of an activity. Conflicts are resolved by MER to ensure that all scientific research referred to, reported, or used in a continuing education activity conforms to the generally accepted standards of experimental design, data collection, and analysis. MER is committed to providing its learners with high-quality activities that promote improvements or quality in health care and not the business interest of a commercial interest.

The faculty has disclosed the following:

York Pei, MSc, MD, FRCPC
Consulting Fees: Otsuka, Sanofi, and Vertex

The following CMEology planners and managers, Beth Goodwin, Rob Lowney, and Dana Ravyn, PhD, MPH, hereby state that they or their spouse/life partner do not have any financial relationships or relationships to products or devices with any commercial interest related to the content of this CME/CE activity of any amount during the past 12 months.

The following MER planner and manager, Julie Johnson, PharmD, hereby states that she or her spouse/life partner do not have any financial relationships or relationships to products or devices with any commercial interest related to the content of this CME/CE activity of any amount during the past 12 months.

Physician Continuing Medical Education

Accreditation Statement
This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of Medical Education Resources (MER) and CMEology. MER is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians and nurses.

Credit Designation
Medical Education Resources designates this online activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in this activity.  

Continuing Nursing Education

Medical Education Resources is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission on Accreditation.

This CE activity provides 1.0 contact hour of continuing nursing education.

Medical Education Resources is a provider of continuing nursing education by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider #CEP 12299, for 1.0 contact hour.

Instructions for Receiving Credit

A brief post-test and course evaluation will follow the completion of the course. Please complete these questionnaires to claim credit for this course.

Requirements for Successful Completion

Upon successfully completing the post-test with a score of 75% or better and the completion of the activity evaluation, the certificate will be made available immediately. 

Statement of Commercial Support

This activity is supported by an educational grant from Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.

Disclaimer

Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of their patient’s conditions and possible contraindications and/or dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer’s product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities.

Disclosure of Unlabeled Use

This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the FDA. The planners of this activity do not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications. 

The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of the planners. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.

Contact Information for Questions about the Activity

For questions about the certification of this activity, please contact CMEology at: info@cmeology.org.

0.50 CME / CNE
Global Education Group
ADPKD - What Your Patients Want You to Know

ADPKD - What Your Patients Want You to Know

Start

Activity Details

Free CME/CNE
0.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)
0.5 Contact Hour(s)
Released: December 31, 2018
Expires: December 31, 2019
30 minutes to complete

Jointly Provided By

In Partnership With

Statement of Commercial Support

This activity is supported by an independent educational grant from Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.

Terms of Offering

This activity was released on 12/31/18 and is valid for one year. Requests for credit must be made no later than 12/31/19.

Target Audience

The educational design of this activity addresses the needs of nephrology and primacy care HCPs involved in the treatment of patients with ADPKD.

Statement of Need/Program Overview

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a chronic inherited progressive condition in which renal cysts develop and expand, eventually leading to severe loss of kidney function. Complications include pain, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Unless patients undergo dialysis or transplantation, ADPKD is inevitably fatal. Because it is a genetically transmitted disease, there is a 50/50 chance that each child of a parent with ADPKD will develop the disease. Management of ADPKD has evolved significantly in recent years; in 2018, the first drug indicated for slowing progression of the disease was approved.

ADPKD is considered a rare disease, but with a prevalence of approximately 1:1000, the odds are high that most primary care practices have 1 or more patients with the condition – whether or not it has been diagnosed. Primary care providers would benefit from education that raises their awareness of ADPKD, explains strategies for managing the disease and its complications, and provides them with tools to promote and preserve optimal patient health for as long as possible.

This unique online Clinical Comparison CME/CE activity allows learners to learn about ADPKD, discover evidence-based treatment strategies, apply their learning in a series of interactive real-world challenges, receive feedback on their choices, and compare their choices with those of their peers. The content of the program was developed, in part, through interviews with ADPKD patients and their caregivers, who shared their insights and what they wish their clinicians knew about the disease, its management, and its impact on their lives.

Educational Objectives

After completing this activity, the participant should be better able to:

  • Identify clinical approaches for the early recognition, efficient evaluation, and timely diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)
  • Identify data-driven approaches to the comprehensive care of patients with ADPKD
  • Recognize which patients with ADPKD are most likely to benefit from currently available and emerging therapies for ADPKD

Faculty

Brittany P. Cavanaugh, DO
Professor of Internal Medicine
Yale University School of Medicine
New Haven, Connecticut


Neera Dahl, MD
Associate Professor of Nephrology
Yale University School of Medicine
New Haven, Connecticut


Physician Accreditation Statement

This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of Global Education Group (Global) and Global Academy for Medical Education. Global is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Physician Credit Designation

Global Education Group designates this enduring material for a maximum of 0.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Nursing Continuing Education

Global Education Group is accredited with distinction as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation.

This educational activity for 0.5 contact hours is provided by Global Education Group. Nurses should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Global Contact Information

For information about the accreditation of this program, please contact Global at 303-395-1782 or cme@globaleducationgroup.com.

Instructions to Receive Credit

In order to receive credit for this activity, the participant must read the activity information, review the activity in its entirety, and complete the online post-test and evaluation. Upon completing this activity as designed and achieving a passing score on the post-test, you will be directed to a web page that will allow you to receive your certificate of credit via e-mail or you may print it out at that time.

System Requirements

PC
Microsoft Windows 2000 SE or above.
Flash Player Plugin (v7.0.1.9 or greater)
Internet Explorer (v5.5 or greater), or Firefox
Adobe Acrobat Reader

MAC
MAC OS 10.2.8
Flash Player Plugin (v7.0.1.9 or greater)
Safari
Adobe Acrobat Reader
Internet Explorer is not supported on the Macintosh.

Fee Information & Refund/Cancellation Policy

There is no fee for this educational activity.

Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest

Global Education Group (Global) requires instructors, planners, managers, and other individuals and their spouse/life partner who are in a position to control the content of this activity to disclose any real or apparent conflict of interest they may have as related to the content of this activity. All identified conflicts of interest are thoroughly vetted by Global for fair balance, scientific objectivity of studies mentioned in the materials or used as the basis for content, and appropriateness of patient care recommendations.

The faculty reported the following financial relationships or relationships to products or devices they or their spouse/life partner have with commercial interests related to the content of this CME activity:

Brittany P. Cavanaugh, DO
Nothing to disclose

Neera Dahl, MD
Has been a Consultant/Independent Contractor and a member of the Speakers’ Bureau for Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.

The planners and managers reported the following financial relationships or relationships to products or devices they or their spouse/life partner have with commercial interests related to the content of this CME activity:

Ashley Marostica, RN, MSN: Nothing to disclose
Lindsay Borvansky: Nothing to disclose
Andrea Funk: Nothing to disclose
Liddy Knight: Nothing to disclose
Ashley Cann: Nothing to disclose
Tom Garry: Nothing to disclose
Shirley V. Jones, MBA: Nothing to disclose
Mike LoPresti: Nothing to disclose
Ron Schaumburg: Nothing to disclose

Disclosure of Unlabeled Use

This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the FDA. Global Education Group (Global) and Global Academy for Medical Education do not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications.

The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of any organization associated with this activity. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.

Disclaimer

Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of patient conditions and possible contraindications on dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer’s product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities.

Copyright © 2018 by Global Academy for Medical Education, LLC, Frontline Medical Communications Inc. and its Licensors. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form, by any means, without prior written permission of the Publisher. Global Academy for Medical Education, LLC, the accredited provider or the Publisher will not assume responsibility for damages, loss, or claims of any kind arising from or related to the information contained in this publication, including any claims related to the products, drugs, or services mentioned herein.